Relative entropy has played a significant role in various fields of mathematics and physics as the quantum version of the Kullback-Leibler divergence in classical theory. Many variations of relative entropy have been introduced so far with applications to quantum information and related subjects. Typical examples are three different classes, called the standard, the maximal, and the measured f-divergences, all of which are defined in terms of (operator) convex functions f on (0,8) and have respective mathematical and information theoretical backgrounds. The a-Rényi relative entropy and its new version called the sandwiched a-Rényi relative entropy have also been useful in recent developments of quantum information.
In the first half of this monograph, the different types of quantum f-divergences and the Rényi-type divergences mentioned above in the general von Neumann algebra setting are presented for study. While quantum information has been developing mostly in the finite-dimensional setting, it is widely believed that von Neumann algebras provide the most suitable framework in studying quantum information and related subjects. Thus, the advance of quantum divergences in von Neumann algebras will be beneficial for further development of quantum information.
Quantum divergences are functions of two states (or more generally, two positive linear functionals) on a quantum system and measure the difference between the two states. They are often utilized to address such problems as state discrimination, error correction, and reversibility of quantum operations. In the second half of the monograph, the reversibility/sufficiency theory for quantum operations (quantum channels) between von Neumann algebras via quantum f-divergences is explained, thus extending and strengthening Petz' previous work.
For the convenience of the reader, an appendix including concise accounts of von Neumann algebras is provided.
This monograph focuses on the mathematical and numerical analysis of simplicial partitions and the finite element method. This active area of research has become an essential part of physics and engineering, for example in the study of problems involving heat conduction, linear elasticity, semiconductors, Maxwell's equations, Einstein's equations and magnetic and gravitational fields.
These problems require the simulation of various phenomena and physical fields over complicated structures in three (and higher) dimensions. Since not all structures can be decomposed into simpler objects like d-dimensional rectangular blocks, simplicial partitions are important. In this book an emphasis is placed on angle conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the finite element method for elliptic PDEs with given boundary conditions.
It is aimed at a general mathematical audience who is assumed to be familiar with only a few basic results from linear algebra, geometry, and mathematical and numerical analysis.
The package of Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves is a major tool in global symplectic geometry and its applications, including mirror symmetry and Hamiltonian dynamics. The Kuranishi structure was introduced by two of the authors of the present volume in the mid-1990s to apply this machinery on general symplectic manifolds without assuming any specific restrictions. It was further amplified by this book's authors in their monograph Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory and in many other publications of theirs and others. Answering popular demand, the authors now present the current book, in which they provide a detailed, self-contained explanation of the theory of Kuranishi structures.
Part I discusses the theory on a single space equipped with Kuranishi structure, called a K-space, and its relevant basic package. First, the definition of a K-space and maps to the standard manifold are provided. Definitions are given for fiber products, differential forms, partitions of unity, and the notion of CF-perturbations on the K-space. Then, using CF-perturbations, the authors define the integration on K-space and the push-forward of differential forms, and generalize Stokes' formula and Fubini's theorem in this framework. Also, "virtual fundamental class" is defined, and its cobordism invariance is proved.
Part II discusses the (compatible) system of K-spaces and the process of going from "geometry" to "homological algebra". Thorough explanations of the extension of given perturbations on the boundary to the interior are presented. Also explained is the process of taking the "homotopy limit" needed to handle a system of infinitely many moduli spaces. Having in mind the future application of these chain level constructions beyond those already known, an axiomatic approach is taken by listing the properties of the system of the relevant moduli spaces and then a self-contained account of the construction of the associated algebraic structures is given. This axiomatic approach makes the exposition contained here independent of previously published construction of relevant structures.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
This book provides a concise introduction to convex duality in financial mathematics. Convex duality plays an essential role in dealing with financial problems and involves maximizing concave utility functions and minimizing convex risk measures. Recently, convex and generalized convex dualities have shown to be crucial in the process of the dynamic hedging of contingent claims. Common underlying principles and connections between different perspectives are developed; results are illustrated through graphs and explained heuristically. This book can be used as a reference and is aimed toward graduate students, researchers and practitioners in mathematics, finance, economics, and optimization. Topics include: Markowitz portfolio theory, growth portfolio theory, fundamental theorem of asset pricing emphasizing the duality between utility optimization and pricing by martingale measures, risk measures and its dual representation, hedging and super-hedging and its relationship with linear programming duality and the duality relationship in dynamic hedging of contingent claims
This book examines the unsatisfactory situation in the Arab world where there is a pressing need to address poverty, unemployment, political instability, corruption, and the existential threat of climate change. The authors analyze the relationships between universities and governments in the Arab world, and make recommendations that will help develop intellectual capacity and thereby aid the economic and social transitions so desperately needed in all Arab countries.
Countries aspiring to participate fully in the global knowledge economy require dynamic university sectors operating in concert with governments that actively promote high-quality education and research and foster innovation and entrepreneurship. Successful university-government relationships can be complex and are continually evolving.
Fungi range from being microscopic, single-celled yeasts to multicellular and heterotrophic in nature. Fungal communities have been found in vast ranges of environmental conditions. They can be associated with plants epiphytically, endophytically, or rhizospherically. Extreme environments represent unique ecosystems that harbor novel biodiversity of fungal communities.
Interest in the exploration of fungal diversity has been spurred by the fact that fungi perform numerous functions integral in sustaining the biosphere, ranging from nutrient cycling to environmental detoxification, which involves processes like augmentation, supplementation, and recycling of plant nutrients - a particularly important process in sustainable agriculture. Fungal communities from natural and extreme habitats help promote plant growth, enhance crop yield, and enhance soil fertility via direct or indirect plant growth promoting (PGP) mechanisms of solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, and zinc, production of ammonia, hydrogen cyanides, phytohormones, Fe-chelating compounds, extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, and bioactive secondary metabolites. These PGP fungi could be used as biofertilizers, bioinoculants, and biocontrol agents in place of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in eco-friendly manners for sustainable agriculture and environments.
Along with agricultural applications, medically important fungi play a significant role for human health. Fungal communities are useful for sustainable environments as they are used for bioremediation which is the use of microorganisms' metabolism to degrade waste contaminants (sewage, domestic, and industrial effluents) into non-toxic or less toxic materials by natural biological processes. Fungi could be used as mycoremediation for the future of environmental sustainability. Fungi and fungal products have the biochemical and ecological capability to degrade environmental organic chemicals and to decrease the risk associated with metals, semi-metals, and noble metals either by chemical modification or by manipulating chemical bioavailability.
The two volumes of Recent Trends in Mycological Research aim to provide an understanding of fungal communities from diverse environmental habitats and their potential applications in agriculture, medical, environments and industry. The books are useful to scientists, researchers, and students involved in microbiology, biotechnology, agriculture, molecular biology, environmental biology and related subjects.
This book addresses the neglect of visual creativities and content, and how these are commercialised in the music industries. While musical and visual creativities drive growth, there is a lack of literature relating to the visual side of the music business, which is significant given that the production of meaning and value within this business occurs across a number of textual sites.Popular music is a multimedia, discursive, fluid, and expansive cultural form that, in addition to the music itself, includes album covers; gig and tour posters; music videos; set, stage, and lighting designs; live concert footage; websites; virtual reality/augmented reality technologies; merchandise designs; and other forms of visual content. As a result, it has become impossible to understand the meaning and value of music without considering its relation to these visual components and to the interrelationships between them. Using design culture theory, participant observation, interviews, case studies, and a visual methodology to explore the topic, this research-based book is a valuable study aid for undergraduate and postgraduate students of subjects including the music business, design, arts management, creative and cultural industries studies, business and management studies, and media and communications.
Claudio Naranjo stellt die neun grundlegenden Persnlichkeitsstrukturen des Enneagramms vor und bringt diese mit psychoanalytischen und psychodynamischen Theorien nach Freud, Fromm, Horney, Jung, Reich u.a. sowie der klinisch-psychiatrischen Persnlichkeitsdiagnostik des DSM (Diagnostisches und statistisches Manual psychischer Strungen) in Verbindung. Der Autor entwirft zum einen eine umfassende Theorie des menschlichen Leidens und weist zum anderen einen Weg der Selbsterkenntnis auf, der die Hoffnung auf Befreiung und Transformation birgt. Das Buch ist die überarbeitete und aktualisierte Fassung des Standardwerkes Claudio Naranjos zur Psychologie der Enneatypen.
Volume 8 of the EYIEL focuses on the external economic relations of the European Union as one of the most dynamic political fields in the process of European integration. The first part of this volume analyses the recent controversial questions of the external economic relations of the Union, dealing with the complexity of mixed agreements, transparency and legitimacy issues as well as recent proposals in relation to Investor-State-Dispute Settlement, the Trade Defence Instruments and the implications of the "Brexit" in this context. The second part of EYIEL 8 addresses ongoing bilateral and multilateral negotiations of the EU with China, Japan, Australia, Canada and Taiwan. Moreover, the third part deals with the EU in international organisations and institutions, in particular the recent institutional aspects of the EU-UN relationship, representation in the IMF as well as WTO jurisprudence involving the EU in 2015. The volume concludes with reviews of recent books in international economic law.
This book describes the modelling of prices of ?nancial assets in a simple d- crete time, discrete state, binomial framework. By avoiding the mathematical technicalitiesofcontinuoustime?nancewehopewehavemadethematerial accessible to a wide audience. Some of the developments and formulae appear here for the ?rst time in book form. We hope our book will appeal to various audiences. These include MBA s- dents,upperlevelundergraduatestudents,beginningdoctoralstudents,qu- titative analysts at a basic level and senior executives who seek material on new developments in ?nance at an accessible level. The basic building block in our book is the one-step binomial model where a known price today can take one of two possible values at a future time, which might, for example, be tomorrow, or next month, or next year. In this simple situation "risk neutral pricing" can be de?ned and the model can be applied to price forward contracts, exchange rate contracts and interest rate derivatives. In a few places we discuss multinomial models to explain the notions of incomplete markets and how pricing can be viewed in such a context, where unique prices are no longer available. The simple one-period framework can then be extended to multi-period m- els.TheCox-Ross-RubinsteinapproximationtotheBlackScholesoptionpr- ing formula is an immediate consequence. American, barrier and exotic - tions can all be discussed and priced using binomial models. More precise modelling issues such as implied volatility trees and implied binomial trees are treated, as well as interest rate models like those due to Ho and Lee; and Black, Derman and Toy.
Proof of the "Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing" in its general form by Delbaen and Schachermayer was a milestone in the history of modern mathematical finance and now forms the cornerstone of this book.
Puts into book format a series of major results due mostly to the authors of this book.
Embeds highest-level research results into a treatment amenable to graduate students, with introductory, explanatory background.
Awaited in the quantitative finance community.
Practitioners and researchers who have handled financial market data know that asset returns do not behave according to the bell-shaped curve, associated with the Gaussian or normal distribution. Indeed, the use of Gaussian models when the asset return distributions are not normal could lead to a wrong choice of portfolio, the underestimation of extreme losses or mispriced derivative products. Consequently, non-Gaussian models and models based on processes with jumps, are gaining popularity among financial market practitioners.
Non-Gaussian distributions are the key theme of this book which addresses the causes and consequences of non-normality and time dependency in both asset returns and option prices. One of the main aims is to bridge the gap between the theoretical developments and the practical implementations of what many users and researchers perceive as "sophisticated" models or black boxes. The book is written for non-mathematicians who want to model financial market prices so the emphasis throughout is on practice. There are abundant empirical illustrations of the models and techniques described, many of which could be equally applied to other financial time series, such as exchange and interest rates.
The authors have taken care to make the material accessible to anyone with a basic knowledge of statistics, calculus and probability, while at the same time preserving the mathematical rigor and complexity of the original models.
This book will be an essential reference for practitioners in the finance industry, especially those responsible for managing portfolios and monitoring financial risk, but it will also be useful for mathematicians who want to know more about how their mathematical tools are applied in finance, and as a text for advanced courses in empirical finance; financial econometrics and financial derivatives.
Big data technologies are used to achieve any type of analytics in a fast and predictable way, thus enabling better human and machine level decision making. Principles of distributed computing are the keys to big data technologies and analytics. The mechanisms related to data storage, data access, data transfer, visualization and predictive modeling using distributed processing in multiple low cost machines are the key considerations that make big data analytics possible within stipulated cost and time practical for consumption by human and machines. However, the current literature available in big data analytics needs a holistic perspective to highlight the relation between big data analytics and distributed processing for ease of understanding and practitioner use.This book fills the literature gap by addressing key aspects of distributed processing in big data analytics. The chapters tackle the essential concepts and patterns of distributed computing widely used in big data analytics. This book discusses also covers the main technologies which support distributed processing. Finally, this book provides insight into applications of big data analytics, highlighting how principles of distributed computing are used in those situations. Practitioners and researchers alike will find this book a valuable tool for their work, helping them to select the appropriate technologies, while understanding the inherent strengths and drawbacks of those technologies.
Risk management for financial institutions is one of the key topics the financial industry has to deal with. The present volume is a mathematically rigorous text on solvency modeling. Currently, there are many new developments in this area in the financial and insurance industry (Basel III and Solvency II), but none of these developments provides a fully consistent and comprehensive framework for the analysis of solvency questions. Merz and Wüthrich combine ideas from financial mathematics (no-arbitrage theory, equivalent martingale measure), actuarial sciences (insurance claims modeling, cash flow valuation) and economic theory (risk aversion, probability distortion) to provide a fully consistent framework. Within this framework they then study solvency questions in incomplete markets, analyze hedging risks, and study asset-and-liability management questions, as well as issues like the limited liability options, dividend to shareholder questions, the role of re-insurance, etc. This work embeds the solvency discussion (and long-term liabilities) into a scientific framework and is intended for researchers as well as practitioners in the financial and actuarial industry, especially those in charge of internal risk management systems. Readers should have a good background in probability theory and statistics, and should be familiar with popular distributions, stochastic processes, martingales, etc.
In recent years there has been a significant increase of interest in continuous-time Principal-Agent models, or contract theory, and their applications. Continuous-time models provide a powerful and elegant framework for solving stochastic optimization problems of finding the optimal contracts between two parties, under various assumptions on the information they have access to, and the effect they have on the underlying "profit/loss" values. This monograph surveys recent results of the theory in a systematic way, using the approach of the so-called Stochastic Maximum Principle, in models driven by Brownian Motion. Optimal contracts are characterized via a system of Forward-Backward Stochastic Differential Equations. In a number of interesting special cases these can be solved explicitly, enabling derivation of many qualitative economic conclusions.
This book examines rural tourism across three different contexts, acknowledging the complexity of rural places. It applies a systematic comparative framework across nine case studies from Australia, Canada and Sweden. The case studies address the uniqueness of different rural spaces, while the framework incorporates many theoretical aspects from human geography including spatial, historic, institutional, demographic, socio-economic and network perspectives. In the course of applying this comparative case study framework, the book identifies numerous implications for planning and policy in rural settings. These contributions from international, expert authors help to identify the opportunities and challenges that affect rural regions, from places at the urban fringe to exotic remote spaces and taking in the `boring bits in between.' Both the analysis and the framework used will be of value to scholars and students of rurality, tourism, regional development, rural policy, geography, and destination management. Readers will gain a deeper understanding of the rural context in developed countries and a robust conceptualization of rural tourism geographies.
In this volume, nine renowned experts delineate their theoretical or methodological approach of Aikidô in potentiating constructive handling of social conflicts. The authors depict the contribution of the Japanese self-defensive art Aikidô to the theory and practice of conflict transformation. The concept of Elicitive Conflict Transformation (Lederach, Dietrich) necessarily calls for a revised understanding of applied peace work and a new personal profile of the conflict worker. This is the point where Aikidô and conflict/peace work meet.
This book provides an overview of innovative and new directions being chartered in South African tourism geographies. Within the context of global change the volume explores different facets and different geographies of tourism. Key themes under scrutiny include the sharing economy, the changing accommodation service sector, touring poverty, tourism and innovation, tourism and climate change, threats to sustainability, inclusive tourism and a number of studies which challenge the present-mindedness of much tourism geographical scholarship. The 18 chapters range across urban and rural landscapes in South Africa with sectoral studies which include adventure tourism, coastal tourism, cruise tourism, nature-based tourism, sports tourism and wine tourism. Finally, the volume raises a number of policy and planning issues in the global South in particular relating to sustainability, local economic development and poverty reduction. Outlining the impact of tourism expansion in South Africa and suggesting future research directions, this stimulating book is a valuable resource for geographers as well as researchers and students in the field of tourism studies.
Managementmoden kursieren schon seit langem in der Verwaltung - nicht erst seit dem New Public Management. Der vorliegende Band stellt aktuelle Konzepte vor, die in den letzten 10 Jahren Konjunktur hatten und haben. Die besprochenen Konzepte werden vor einem zumeist organisationssoziologischen, aber auch verwaltungswissenschaftlichen und psychologischen Hintergrund diskutiert. Damit werden auch die blinden Flecken, d.h. die verkürzten theoretischen Grundannahmen sowie die teilweise ideologische Vollmundigkeit der Konzeptangebote auf- und abgeklärt. In einem zweiten Abschnitt wird - gewissermaßen als Gegenmittel zu den verkürzenden Managementmoden - theoretisches Rüstzeug unterbreitet, das für die Praxis eine robustere Orientierung bieten kann.
Das Herausgeberwerk ist ein Plädoyer für eine organisationssoziologisch fundierte Führungskonzeption, die am Beispiel der Polizei wichtige Ansätze bündelt und ihre Brauchbarkeit in theoretischer wie praktischer Hinsicht dokumentiert. Die Polizei ist ein interessantes Feld, um Probleme der Führung zu diskutieren, weil sie durch vergleichsweise steile Hierarchien gekennzeichnet ist und dennoch komplexe Führungssituationen aufweist, die durch die Hierarchie selbst kaum bearbeitet werden knnen. Außerdem verfügt die Polizei über ein offizielles Führungssystem, das "Kooperative Führungssystem" (KFS), das als Leitbild und als "verbindliche Handlungsorientierung" Geltung beansprucht. Das KFS stammt aus den 1970er-Jahren und ist geprägt von den instrumentellen Lsungsansätzen, die einerseits auf klassische Motivationsansätze, aber auch auf eine unreflektierte Vorgesetztenfunktion zurückgreifen, die man als heroisch und in heutiger Zeit kaum mehr realistisch bezeichnen muss. Die Autoren präsentieren verschiedene organisationssoziologische Ansätze, um deutlich zu machen, dass eine angemessene Rekonstruktion des Führungsprozesses nicht nur im Sinne eines erweiterten theoretischen Blickwinkels, sondern auch für die Bearbeitung komplexer Führungssituationen praktisch brauchbarer ist.
The book provides an overview of the right to counsel and the attorney-client privilege in the following 12 jurisdictions: China, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, UK and USA.The right to counsel is a fundamental right providing the accused access to justice in criminal proceedings. Lawyers can only practice their profession properly if clients have complete trust in their lawyer's discretion. This trust is safeguarded by the attorney-client privilege, which is an indispensable part of every constitutional state and one of the most important professional duties of a lawyer. It is of particular importance in criminal proceedings regarding the protection of the confidentiality of lawyer-client communications in the different procedural stages, coercive measures as well as the various duties and interests in play. However, the communications protected by attorney-client privilege vary greatly from country to country. With regard to criminal investigations in an increasingly globalised world, where sophisticated tools enable broad digital investigations, there is an urgent need to clarify how this fundamental right is protected at both the national and supranational level. Each chapter explores the regulations, practices and recent developments in each jurisdiction and was written by highly qualified experts in the legal field - from academia and practice alike. It identifies possible solutions and best practices, providing valuable insights for practitioners and law-making bodies alike regarding the actual protection (or lack thereof) of lawyer-client confidentiality in the pretrial and trial stage of criminal proceedings.
This book provides an interdisciplinary look at emerging trends in signal processing and biomedicine found at the intersection of healthcare, engineering, and computer science. It examines the vital role signal processing plays in enabling a new generation of technology based on big data, and looks at applications ranging from medical electronics to data mining of electronic medical records. Topics covered include analysis of medical images, machine learning, biomedical nanosensors, wireless technologies, and instrumentation and electrical stimulation. Biomedical Signal Processing: Innovation and Applications presents tutorials and examples of successful applications, and will appeal to a wide range of professionals, researchers, and students interested in applications of signal processing, medicine, and biology.