Table 1. 1 reports the world's largest earthquakes since 1900 with respect to number of deaths (larger than or equal to 10 000), also showing the region of occurrence and the corresponding magnitudes. Both, from Figure 1. 2 and Table 1. 1 it is interesting to note that this period of time is characterized by an annual average of 15 000 deaths with two main fluctuations (modal values), the largest in the period 1900 to 1940 and another with a larger value in the decade of 1970-80. Figure 1. 2 shows the number of total deaths from the greatest earthquakes that occurred in the XX century. Although the number of victims has a tendency to decrease with time, the economic losses are increasing significantly (see Chapter 18 of this book). Table 1. 1. World earthquakes since 1900 with number of deaths greater than 10 000 Year Region Deaths Magnitude Year Region Deaths Magnitude 1905 India 19000 8. 6 1960 Agadir, Morocco 12000 5. 9 1906 Chile 20000 8. 6 1962 Iran 12000 7. 3 1907 Central Asia 12000 8. 1 1968 Iran 10000 7. 3 1908 Italy 70000 7. 5 1970 Yunnan, China 10000 7. 5 1915 Italy 29980 7. 5 1970 Peru 67000 7. 7 1917 Indonesia 15000 - 1972 Nicaragua 10000 6. 2 1918 China 10000 7. 3 1976 Guatemala 23000 7. 5 1920 China 220000 8. 5 1976 242000 7. 8 Tangshan, China 1923 Japon 142807 7. 9 1978 25000 7.
The 1755 earthquake and tsunami were influential not only in Portugal but in all European and North African countries where the devastating effects were felt. The entire world was deeply impressed and the discussion of its causes generated a large amount of scientific and metaphysical speculation. It inspired philosophers, poets and writers. The socio-economic consequences of the event were great and affected the future organization and development of Portugal. The possibility of a similar occurence urges society and the scientific community to reflect on its lessons.
AudienceThis work is of interest to experts in seismology, earthquake engineering, civil protection, urban planning and it is a reference book for doctoral students.
This book addresses the emerging trend of smart grids in power systems. It discusses the advent of smart grids and selected technical implications; further, by combining the perspectives of researchers from Europe and South America, the book captures the status quo of and approaches to smart grids in a wide range of countries. It describes the basic concepts, enabling readers to understand the theoretical aspects behind smart grid formation, while also examining current challenges and philosophical discussions. Like the industrial revolution and the birth of the Internet, smart grids are certain to change the way people use electricity. In this regard, a new term - the "prosumer" - is used to describe consumers who may sometimes also be energy producers. This is particularly appealing if we bear in mind that most of the distributed power generation in smart grids does not involve carbon emissions. At first glance, the option of generating their own power could move consumers to leave their current energy provider. Yet the authors argue that doing so is not a wise choice: utilities will play a central role in this new scenario and should not be ignored.